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Archaeometric Studies at Yivli Minare in Antalya
Ali Akın AKYOL – Yusuf Kağan KADIOĞLU – Şahinde DEMİRCİ*
The 13th century Seljuk construction Yivli Minare, or the Fluted Minaret, located in
the city identity of Antalya, stands independently to the east of a mosque of the same
name. For the conservation of the Yivli Minare, the Yivli Minare Relevé, Restitution
and Restoration Project was initiated. The monument was analysed for archaeometrical
purposes as well.
Within these studies the structural materials (stone, brick, mortar and plaster) and decorative
materials (tiles and their glaze) were examined for their basic physical properties
and chemical characteristics, as well as their mineralogical/petrographic structures. Colors,
electrical conductivity, amount of water soluble salt, salt types and raw material contents
were also examined.
The building stones used for the construction of the minaret were travertine that was
formed with cold and hot water sedimentation reflecting local formation. In addition,
types of rocks (AYM-T1) used for repairs were also identified (as marble).
Mortar and plaster matrices comprising aggregates and binders were examined separately.
The binders found in the samples were either lime or lime with gypsum or cement.
Evidence seems to indicate that in mortars with original properties, the binder contained
lime and gypsum together, while in the repair mortars and plasters, binders also contained
cement. Some of the mortar samples, namely AYM-H9 and AYM-H10, contained about 1%
tow of such as plants, hays etc. in the aggregate. Brick crumbs were found about 3% to
80% in most of the samples.
Two tile samples (AYM-C1 and AYM-C2) were examined for their thin section analysis
and it was seen that their fabrics were different. Tile sample AYM-C1, similar to AYM-B7,
was fired at 900-950oC and contained 1.5% porosity, while tile sample AYM-C2 was fired
at a lower temperature (900oC) as suggested from its highly porous (15%) structure. The
glaze of the tile samples has a thickness varying from 300 to 700 μm. The matrix of
AYM-C1 has a broken, angular texture, with grains of 0.1 - 500 μm. It is composed of aggregates
and minerals with substantial heterogeneous distribution. The matrix of AYM-C2
has coarser grains but fewer aggregates. The basic elementary contents of the glaze samples
are similar to each other.
In the petrographical thin section analysis, unsuitable mortar and plaster repairs containing
cement as binder were identified.
The two tile samples examined were found to be similar in character to other building
tiles of the same period. It showed that a certain tile production technology in building
Seljuk monuments might be employed all over Anatolia.
Micro-climatic examination revealed a problem with dampness in the ground beneath
the minaret.
The Yivli Minare is an indispensable part of Antalya’s identity. The archaeometrical
data from the study are necessary for appropriate repair work enabling the Yivli Minare to
be passed to next generations. According to data resulting from this study, materials to be
used – if necessary – must be compatible with original construction materials. 

* Dr. Ali Akın Akyol
Ankara Üniversitesi, Başkent Meslek Yüksekokulu, Teknik Programlar Bölümü, Eser Koruma
Programı / Malzeme Koruma ve Araştırma Laboratuvarı,  Ankara
E-posta: akyol@ankara.edu.tr
Prof. Dr. Yusuf Kağan Kadıoğlu
Ankara Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü / Yer Bilimleri Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi (YEBİM) Tandoğan, Ankara
E-posta: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr
Prof. Dr. Şahinde Demirci
ODTÜ Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Kimya Bölümü / ODTÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Arkeometri Anabilim Dalı Ankara
E-posta: sahinde@metu.edu.tr

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