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Beobachtungen zu den Zwölfgötter-Reliefs in Lykien
Diether SCHÜRR
Numerous Twelve-Gods reliefs of the Roman Imperial period peculiar to Lycia indeed bear fourteen deity figures. Few detailed inscriptions state that the chief deity is Artemis Kynegetis. In fact, a curse inscription from Rome is the only evidence for this deity group outside Lycia, and in it their father is identified with Jupiter. One example gives Hermes as the first one of the twelve and placed at the beginning, while in another example he took the place of his father. Very rarely do we know the find spots of these reliefs. At least six of them were found at Gömbe (ancient Komba) in the 19th century; two were found at two small settlements in central Lycia, today abandoned. One relief was found reused in the ceiling of a fountain at Ilvit in 1894, while another one from nearby Kızılgöl (?) was found a few meters away from the only water source of the mountainous Yavu region. As Freyer-Schauenburg proposed based on the depiction of two reliefs with large vessels, the hypothesis that these reliefs were connected with water sources gains strength. The piece from ancient Phellos was actually found at Limanağzı (Port Sevedo) to the east of Kaş. Here a doline leads to the source; therefore, a sanctuary to the Twelve Gods should be sought here, not in Phellos. An unpublished inscription on a sarcophagus near Belen Pier underlines the fine for unwanted burials here.

The Twelve-Gods of our reliefs under study here can be linked neither with the twelve Hittite-Hurrian deities at Yazılıkaya nor with the twelve deities of the agora at Xanthos, to whom a pillar tomb was dedicated. These should be the twelve gods of Olympos. However, Artemis, or Lycian Ertẽmi, was worshipped in Lycia earlier. French excavations at Letoon showed that a statue was dedicated to the goddess by the Lycian dynast Arbinas (Erbbina) already in the early fourth century B.C.

Diether Schürr,
Mühlstr.7, D-63584 Gründau
E-mail: fam.schuerr@t-online.de

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