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The Structure N1 in Termessos

Situated to the south of the stoa of Attalos, the structure N1 faces the Agora (east) and is a prostyle of the Corinthian order. Partially standing, the structure consist of a cella and a pronaos. The pronaos has 6 columns at the front and 2 at the sides. From the remains, it was seen by Niemann that the facade was crowned with a Syrian arched pediment. On the back wall of the pronaos are two niches circular inside but rectangular on the outside. The cella walls are constructed in the regular isodomic technique. The columns of granite-like material are not fluted.

The structure has been identified as one of the prostyle temples without a podium in Termessos. However, the floor plan is different from the others in Termessos because it has a cella with an apse; has more columns surrounding the pronaos; and has niches.

As an example of a cella with an apse, the best known example in Anatolia is the temple of Serapis in Ephesus. Here the apse is rectangular. Syrian arched pediments are seen on the Mamastis tomb in the south necropolis of Termessos, and on Hadrian's gate in Ephesus. But the pediment of structure N1 in Termessos is different from these others because the arch here rests independently on the architrave which has two separate segments. The column bases of N1 are similar to those of N2 in Termessos. The column and antae capitals are of the Corinthian order and are similar to those on the upper floor of The Celcius library and the harbour baths in Ephesus, and at the temple of Demeter in Pergamon. In addition the pilaster capitals of Dionysus at Sagalassos have similarities to those of structure N1. The architrave of N1 may be considered unsual because there are two fasciae on the outside. The decoration between the fasciae is usually seen on structures at Perge dating from Hadrian's reign. The frieze of N1 is similar to capitals of the upper floor of the nymphaeum to the north of the Lower Agora in Sagalassos. This type of decoration is also seen on the column capitals of Hadrian's reign, eg. the antae capitals of Hadrian's gate in Ephesus, the Mylasa gate, and the Gümüşkesen mausoleum. These edifices are all dated to Hadrian's reign or shortly after. The sima decoration of N1 is similar to that which is found on the temple of Hadrian in Ephesus, the temple of Demeter in Pergamon, Hadrian's gate in Antalya, and the gate of Plancia Magna at Perge. The niches on the back wall of the pronaos are never seen in the temple architecture of Anatolia. In Termessos, similar niches can be seen on the facade of the Lower Gymnasion. Another example of this use of niches is to be found at the Celsus library in Ephesus, but in this case the niches are not topped with arches, however these niches are richly decorated as are the niches of N1. In addition, the Lefkandi gate in Nicaea has similar niches. These structures are also dated to Hadrian's reign.

The structure N1 has been dated to the second half of the 2nd / 3rd century A.D. by various scholars. The author's architectural comparisons suggest a date in Hadrian's reign or early in the reign of Antinous Pius and so the author dates the structure to 140-150 A.D.

The structure N1 is usually called the "Termessos Corinthian temple", however, similar floor plans are seen with andros of an earlier date around the Zeus temple in Labaraunda. Roman examples are found to the south of the forum in Pompeii. The in antis or prostyle structure to east of N1 is said to be "a phyle house" by Heberdey based on an inscription. Thus, the author believes that N1 is not a temple but that these two structures, N1 and N2, are the Council House of the Elders and the Council House of the Youth.

*Dr. Mustafa Büyükkolancı, Efes Müzesi, Selçuk - İzmir.

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