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S U M M A R Y

Tuminehi / Tymnessos
Jürgen BORCHHARDT*
Günter NEUMANN**
Klaus SCHULZ***

Kalkan and Köybaşı located in the mountains to its east have been for years the focus of scholarly interest surveying the Lycian region. This region, which has been the subject of investigation by many travellers and scholars from approximately mid 19th century onward, has been discussed frequently during interpretations of remains near Köybaşı. However, the relevant studies and publications are in general limited to the necropolis area. The remains partly also belong to a settlement in addition to the necropolis have been interpreted with a new point of view, as J. Zahle evaluated in 1988 the numismatic data gathered from the region in the light of written sources and archaeological findings. This evaluation has revealed that the ruins in Köybaşı belong to the settlement called tuminehi in Lycian sources and Tymnessos in Greek and Roman sources. It is assumed that Kalkan, where no traces of a settlement or a necropolis have been found, except lesser remains, was the harbour of the mountain settlement of Köybaşı opening to the Mediterranean Sea, and that êtri tuminehi / Tymnessos in the written sources refers to the remains of Köybaşı and hrzzi tuminehi / Artymnessos to Kalkan.

Köybaşı with its fertile plain and rich water sources up in the mountains and hills is a mountain settlement at an altitude of 1000 m above the sea level. This ancient settlement, which was strategically important, has controlled a narrow passage on the main trade route between Xanthos, Seyret and Phellos with a permanent military unit positioned in the fortress at the highest point of the settlement. The huge building complex 300 m beneath this point must have been the acropolis. On the area between these two points, which has not been examined yet and which is arranged in the form of a high terrace, must have been a sacred pond similar to that in Hattusha. This area, where today remains of a church can be seen, must have been the sacred area of the city. The city, which is located between the acropolis and the abovementioned passage, is destroyed to a large extent by illicit excavations, modern usages and erosion.

The cyclopic fortifications surrounding the settlement are reinforced with some additional walls displaying significance in defending the weak points of the terrain, and a defence complex in the north. The settlement is accessed via two points. The first entrance at the northeast leads to the valley and is still used today. The second entrance opening to the northwest is the main entrance of the settlement. There is furthermore a gate of polygonal masonry leading to the city centre at the northwest corner of the acropolis.

The acropolis looking over the Kalkan Bay and the Patara beach on the west is located on a flat area of 120 x 150 m at an altitude of 1360 m, to the north of the defence complex. This area is surrounded by 1.50 m thick fortifications built with limestone blocks. Three towers of this structure have reached our day. Although the buildings on this area cannot be identified very well today due to poor state of preservation, there have possibly been a palace, a temple and a heroon belonging to the Ruler of Tuminehi.

In the west is the city settlement, which is directly connected to the acropolis. The sheer slope between the city centre and the acropolis suggests that the locals used rock-cut steps to commute between these two points. Streets in the east-west direction, squares, and parts of public and civic buildings can be clearly identified within the city, which occupies an area of approximately 300 x 360 m. The city resembles Pınara and Limyra very much in terms of planning; however, the walls cannot be identified clearly.

There is no definite evidence in the acropolis and the city centre regarding the existence of a sacred area. Some rock-cut rooms outside these two areas indicate the existence of sacred areas outside the city. A quadrangular alcove in the rocks close to the abovementioned passage was thought to be a rock-cut tomb at first, but now that detailed surveys have been conducted, there arose the possibility for it to be a cult room. This space with an open front, which can be reached by the rock-cut steps in the north and the west and contains a 13 cm high podium inside, must have been closed off with blocks and had a façade with a double door and a foreyard. It seems rather possible that there have been enthroned or standing statues, for instance of Artemis and Apollon, on the base within this space, instead of sarcophagi. Another rock-cut room to the left of this space was also formerly thought to be a tomb. The back wall of this room of 6 x 2.45 m with a big fore-room has an opening of a water source and a connected drainage. The water source was directed through these canals to the pools for religious ceremonies, which were probably in the fore- room. The numerous socket-holes on the flattened base inside lead to the assumption that there have been the statues of Leto, Artemis, Apollon and Nymphe. These two sacred areas possibly date back to the settlement of the Classical period.

The settlement has a quite wide necropolis with more than 100 rock-cut tombs spread around. The tombs, which are most intense with 93 units on the eastern slope of the acropolis hill, are arranged in the form of honeycombs as in Pınara. These tombs have apparently neither inscriptions nor monumental façades and were probably made during the Perikles - Alexander period or the period between the Satrap revolt and the reign of the Hecatomnids (358 - 334 BC). Another necropolis is located close to the passage on the way to Xanthos and contains 23 rock-cut tombs scattered around. One of these tombs has figurative decoration. On the façade of this tomb with an ante-room are pairs of foot soldiers, equestrian soldiers as a reflection of the Lycian tradition, as well as conversation and feast scenes, the typical Lycian motifs.

There is a pillar tomb, which must be a cenotaph, between this rock-cut tomb and the passage. This tomb, which has a small room, has one peculiarity that is different from other known examples. It contains two openings, which are called 'spirit holes'.

There is a monument with two sarcophagi beneath the northern fortifications of the city. These sarcophagi, which are not known to whom they were dedicated due to the lack of inscriptions, are destroyed to a large extent. The extant fragments indicate that the sarcophagus to the east was a columned sarcophagus with gate motifs on its narrow sides and had probably an athlete figure on it. The fact that this sarcophagus is decorated with architectural elements and reliefs is something that is not usual for Lycian sarcophagi.


*Prof. Dr. Jürgen Borchhardt - Prof. Dr. Günter Neumann - Klaus Schulz, Rennweg 89 I 5, A-1030 Wien - Österreich

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