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Madduwatta and the Land of Maountain Zippasla
Hamdi KAN*
Erkan DÜNDAR**

The Madduwatta text that is studied in this article concerns the struggle for power that took place in a period of political chaos in Anatolia during the early years of the Hittite New Kingdom Period. The protagonist in our text, Madduwatta, was a local prince ruling in western Anatolia and when his territory became the target of Attarasiya from Ahhiyawa, Madduwatta could not resist this superpower of the time and so he took refuge with the Hittites. Based upon their policy in regard to western Anatolia, the Hittites welcomed Madduwatta and they appointed him as their vassal over the Land of Mountain Zippasla. Madduwatta's duty in the Zippasala Mountain lands was to act as an advanced frontier stronghold power on behalf of the Hittites and also to keep Hattusha informed of the events that occurred in the region.

However, this text reveals that Madduwatta had larger ambitions. Without the approval of his overlord, the Hittite authority, he launched a campaign against Arzawa and, in the course of this campaign, he was terribly defeated, losing all his territory and his property. Yet, Hattusha still assisted him. Subsequent to this, Attarasiya came to the fore, insisting upon his claims over Zippasla. For a second time, Madduwatta could not resist this attack of the Ahhiyawa, and, yet again was forced to ask for help from Hattusha. Precisely at this point, this text provides another important piece of evidence, relating the first and the only known battle between the Hittites and Ahhiyawa forces. This battle is understood to have been severe, with one Hittite and one Ahhiyawa official killed and Attarasiya had to withdraw his forces and his control from the region, suggesting a Hittite victory, as it is noteworthy that subsequently, the Hittite forces did not entirely leave the region. It looks as if Hattusha had for some time, suspended its policy of watching from a distance over this important area.

The chaotic political situation in the region still had not settled. The uprisings at Dalawa and Hinduwa then provided Madduwatta with the opportunity that he had been waiting for, as, elaborating with the rebels, Madduwatta managed to get rid of the Hittite force in the region and won a form of independence. Thereafter, he established an alliance with the King Kupanta-Kurunta of Arzawa, his former enemy, based on an arranged marriage between the parties, which would bring Madduwatta in time the throne of Arzawa, thus freeing him from this problem and allowing him to proceed towards his greater ambitions. It can be observed that by this time Hattusha was no longer as seriously interested in the region as it had been previously.

After he became the King of Arzawa, Madduwatta established an alliance with Attarasiya, his former enemy, and began to directly threaten the regional interests of the Hatti. The most important activities in this campaign were the naval raids against Alasiya. The real deadly blows from these developments came during the reign of Tarhundaradu, who became the King of Arzawa after Madduwatta, who advanced into Uda and Tuwanuwa. The period mentioned is particularly significant as it resulted in the golden age of Arzawa, the dominant power in western Anatolia. The fact that the Land of Mountain Zippasla was under constant threat from both Ahhiyawa and Arzawa, as well as Hittite forces, shows that it was located in a strategic position, in regard to the economic, political and military interests of these powers. As can be understood from the text, Zippasla was a neighbour of Arzawa. It is also worth noting that Ahhiyawa and the Hittites were at this time, not as influential in the region as one would have expected.

The fact that the majority of the sites that are mentioned in the text have been identifieci as 1st millennium B.C. sites in classical Lycia, invites further attention to this region. The Teke Peninsula in the southwest corner of Anatolia was a region seriously targeted for control by the dominant powers of the Mediterranean basin, due to its harbours which were vital for the conduct of seaborne trade at this time, and thus the efforts of both Attarasiya of Ahhiyawa and of the Hittites to stop Madduwatta acquire a significant meaning when the geographical facts of Madduwatta's situation is taken into consideration.

For the localisation of Zippasla, its closeness to Pitassa is of prime importance. It is also to be understood that this closeness was not only physical, with their geographical proximity, but also had social dimensions. As can also be inferred from the text, Madduwatta had such close relations with the people and rulers of Pitassa that he was able to manipulate them. The Pisidia of antiquity corresponds to that of Pitassa; and the Pisidia and the Lycia of antiquity are understood from the record to have had close relations.

Based on the re-evaluation of considerable evidence, indications and implications, it can be seen that the Land of Mountain Zippasla should be looked for in the mountainous area of the northern part of the Teke Peninsula. Excavations and surveys to be carried out in this region, should confirm that important results may be obtained from this area concerning the so-called "dark", 2nd millennium B.C. in this region.

*M. Hamdi Kan, Ege Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Kampüs, Bornova - İzmir.
**Erkan Dündar, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Arkeoloji Anabilim Dalı, Aytepe - Aydın.

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