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S U M M A R Y

Surveys in Kağılcık Village in Pisidia: A Rock-cut Sanctuary and Inscriptions
Mehmet ÖZSAİT*
Guy LABARRE**
Nesrin ÖZSAİT***

Archaeological surveys were conducted in August 2004 under the direction of M. Özsait. The team members were N. Özsait, G. Labarre, Ö. Koçak, Ö. Özdemir, P. Ercan, H. Oy, İ. Baytak, S. Kaymakçı and the state representative was H. Çalışkan. The surveys covered the villages and districts in the townships of Burdur itself, Karamanlı, Tefenni, Yeşilova, Gölhisar, Çavdır and Kemer. This article presents the surveys made in the village of Kağılcık 7 km northeast of Karamanlı township. The village is to the north of the Burdur-Karamanlı-Tefenni highway and lies on the lower skirts of the Kağılcık Mountain, which reaches a height of 1829 meters at Güver Tepe. The village extended toward the highway in time. On the slope to the northwest of the modern village lie the ruins of the earlier village abandoned after an earthquake.

Kağılcık village and environs have been little surveyed. M. Collignon together with L. Duchesne had stopped also at Kağılcık in 1878 in the course of their surveys on both banks of Bozçay (Lysis) valley in the north and west parts of Pisidia. Kağılcık was also visited in 1884 by A.H. Smith who had joined one of the journeys of W.M. Ramsay into Asia Minor. Smith was joined by J.R.S. Sterret who was surveying Karamanlı at the time. After long years, J. Mellaart identified and studied the Kağılcık Höyük during his surveys in the Lakes Region.

M. Özsait, who had surveyed this area extensively in 1974 and 1981, has stressed that the Kağılcık Höyük has been significantly damaged and that the Early Chalcolithic potshards of monochrome red slip ware found on the surface are contemporary with Hacılar V-II and reflect the local features also observed on finds from mounds such as Düden, Gölde and Kuruçay in the region. He furthermore noted that there was a sizable EBA settlement based on the abundance of potshards on the surface.

A.S. Hall visited Kağılcık in 1985 during his surveys in Kibyratis region. 12 years after the death of Hall in 1986, N.P. Milner published the survey notes by Hall, without visiting the region. Just like M. Özsait, Hall, too, points to the extensive damage to the höyük and notes that he had collected potshards and that there were numerous architectural elements from the Roman period in the village cemetery and environs.
Our surveys in 2004 revealed that the damage to the höyük continued. Besides the EBA potshards on the surface, other shards dating to the Middle Iron Age and Roman period have been collected.

Similarly the environs of the village were also surveyed and two new settlements, namely Kalecikaltı and Pazar Tepesi have been identified. Potshards pointing to a Late Iron Age settlement were found on the surface at Kalecikaltı locality, which is located 250 meters north of the abandoned village and 350 meters southeast of Kaleler hill, reaching a height of 1394 m, 600 meters northeast of Kağılcık.
Thereafter, the Pazar Tepesi, which is also known as Dibek Taşı or Keşkeklik Tepe, located in the middle of the village and reaching a height of 1234 m, was surveyed. Potshards of EBA, Hellenistic and Roman periods were found from the eastern skirts up to the peak. From the peak toward the northwest skirts were the Hellenistic and Roman potshards more extensive.

A.S. Hall describes his surveys in Kağılcık as follows: "On the upper heights of the village are a rock-cut deep basin, a square base to its left and the claws of an eagle carved on the rock surface. Nearby is a smaller basin and further below are rock-cut tombs. This was perhaps an open-air sanctuary for Zeus." This is a short description. More remains were identified. A.S. Hall thinks that there was a sanctuary dedicated to Zeus here; however, no relevant inscriptions have been identified, nor the singular find of an eagle figure is enough to prove the presence of such a sanctuary. Evidence collected at this sanctuary on the northwest skirt of Pazar Tepesi, also known as Dibektaşı or Keşkeklik by the locals, is evaluated.


*Prof. Dr. Mehmet Özsait, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Eskiçağ Tarihi Anabilim Dalı 34459 Vezneciler - İstanbul.
**Ass. Prof. Dr. Guy Labarre, Universite Lyon 2 - France.
***Archeologue Nesrin Özasait, Bayar Caddesi, Nr. 7/24 Erenköy - İstanbul.

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